My primary area of study is the effects of natural enemy risk in biological control systems. Biological control is ultimately an issue of behavior, since pests are defined by their undesirable behavior. Caterpillars damage plants and reduce yield, aphids spread plant diseases, and cockroaches gross people out. Biological control is really about reducing these unwanted behaviors, and killing pests just happens to be an effective method of doing so. However, it's far from the only method, and natural enemies affect pests through plenty of non-lethal and non-consumptive pathways. I'm interested in studying these non-consumptive effects in biocontrol systems and how they interact with other pest control methods.